Russia is a state located in the eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia. It is the largest state in the world by area. Russia is really a huge and fanatical country. There are no such forests, fields, mountains, river and lake expanses anywhere else. And the shine of church domes, and the crimson ringing at dawn, and evenings near Moscow with quiet, cozy sunsets can be seen only in Russia.
Russia is rich in historical monuments of the past, as well as numerous natural attractions, thanks to which you can choose travel and vacation options for every taste. Tours to Russia are varied and interesting, during which you can visit:
resorts of the Caucasus with mineral waters and resorts of the Black Sea coast with magnificent beaches;
mountain camp sites;
Lake Baikal with unique animals and fish of the region;
numerous historical and architectural monuments;
ancient Russian cities included in the Golden Ring of Russia;
Sergiev Posad (Zagorsk) with a magnificent monastery complex;
Kizhi with a museum of wooden architecture in the open air;
Solovetsky Monastery in the extreme north of the European part of Russia;
The old town of Novgorod with numerous architectural monuments;
Pskov with the complex of the well-preserved detinets of the XIV century;
Pechery, in which the famous Pskov-Pechersky monastery of the XIV-XVI centuries is located;
Pushkin mountains, around which are located the estate-museums of Pushkin, Kern, in the Svyatogorsk monastery is the grave of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin;
Kazan Kremlin of the XIV-XV centuries with the famous Syuyumbeg tower.
One of the main cultural centers of Russia is St. Petersburg, which has St. Isaac's Cathedral; monument to Peter I; the palace complex of the Hermitage, which houses one of the richest museums in the world with collections of paintings, furniture, sculptures; a large number of different museums; the famous Summer Garden.
Not far from St. Petersburg are the Petrodvorets complexes with several museums in baroque and rococo palaces, the beautiful fountains of Tsarskoye Selo, Peterhof.
In Moscow: Red Square with Execution Ground; St. Basil's Cathedral, erected in the 16th century in honor of the conquest of Kazan; The Moscow Kremlin with numerous museums and temples, including the Armory, which houses an excellent collection of jewelry; the famous Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon; several world famous museums and galleries - the Historical Museum; Russian Museum with a rich collection of antique art; the Andrei Rublev Museum with one of the richest collections of Russian icon painting from the 11th century; The Tretyakov Gallery with the country's best collection of Russian art from the 10th - 11th centuries to the 20th century; numerous galleries of contemporary art; Polytechnical Museum.
Official name: Russian Federation
Moscow the capital
Geography: Russia is located on two continents - Europe and Asia. In the south and southeast it borders with China, in the southeast - with North Korea, in the south - with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, in the southwest - with Ukraine, in the west - with Finland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Norway. In addition, Kaliningrad Oblast, an enclave of Russia on the Baltic Sea coast, borders Poland and Lithuania. Russia also owns the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, Vaigach, the Franz Josef Land archipelago, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean; The Kuril Islands (part of the Kuril Islands - Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan - are disputed by Japan) and Sakhalin Island in the Pacific Ocean.
In the east, Russia is washed by the Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Seas and the Bering Strait, in the north by the Barents, Kara, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, the Laptev Sea, in the west by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, in the south by the Black and Azov Seas.
Russia can be subdivided into three very large regions: European Russia, which occupies an area west of the Ural Mountains; Siberia, stretching from the Urals almost to the Pacific coast and the Far East of Russia. In turn, these regions have pronounced physiographic features. The country's territory covers 11 time zones.
Climate: The climate of Russia is very diverse due to the vast territory of the country, although in most of the territory it is continental or moderately continental with long cold winters and short cool summers. High mountain masses in the south of Russia and in Central Asia prevent warm air masses from penetrating into the territory of Russia, for example, in the winter months. The Arctic Ocean is completely covered with ice and is rather a huge ice mass, contributing to the cold winters of the northern regions of Russia. The climate of the western part of the country is slightly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, but this influence is weak and is expressed primarily in the increased humidity on the Baltic coast. The average annual precipitation in the European territory of Russia is about 800 mm, but in the southern regions it decreases to 400 mm. In Siberia, the average annual rainfall is from 500 to 800 mm, in mountainous areas it reaches 1000 mm. As for temperatures, the coldest region is Siberia, where there is a “cold pole” near the city of Verkhoyansk - the average January temperature is about -51 ° C, and in February the thermometer sometimes drops to -68 ° C. On the Arctic coast, temperatures are not so low, however, due to the influence of the Arctic Ocean, they sometimes drop to -50 ° C. However, the same factors that cause low winter temperatures contribute to warm and sometimes hot summers in these regions: the average July temperature in Verkhoyansk is about + 13 ° C, and sometimes summer temperatures reach + 37 ° C. In the European part, the climate is more temperate, and on the Black Sea coast - mild. The average January temperature in Moscow ranges from -16 ° C to -9 ° C, the average July temperature is from + 13 ° C to + 23 ° C.
Population: The country is home to about 142 million people. Ethnic groups: more than 100 nationalities live in Russia, the largest of which are Russians - 82%, Tatars - 3.8%, Ukrainians - 3%, Chuvash - 1.2%.
Language: The official language is Russian.
Religion: Orthodox, Muslims, Protestants (Lutherans, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses, others), Buddhists mainly in Tuva, Buryatia and Kalmykia), Jews, about 60% of the population are atheists.
Currency: Monetary unit - ruble = 100 kopecks. In circulation there are banknotes of 5000, 1000, 500, 100, 50 and 10 rubles, as well as coins in denominations of 50, 10, 5, 2 and 1 ruble and 50, 10, 5 and 1 kopeck. US dollars are widely used. Credit cards and traveler's checks are only available in major cities, hotels and some supermarkets. Currency exchange can be done at banks and exchange offices (mainly US dollars and euros).
Customs regulations: A tourist can bring into the country duty-free up to 50 cigars or 100 cigarillos, or 200 cigarettes, or 250 grams of tobacco; up to 2 liters of alcoholic beverages; goods worth not more than 65 thousand rubles with a total weight of not more than 35 kg. It is prohibited to import and export products of pornographic content, materials containing elements of official or state secrets, rare species of animals without a permit, as well as samples of weapons and ammunition for it. Precious metals and stones are subject to mandatory declaration; weapons, ammunition, radioactive, explosive, narcotic, psychotropic, poisonous or poisonous substances, strong medicines; radio transmitting and receiving complexes with operating frequencies above 9 kHz, as well as artistic and cultural values.
Emergency telephones: Fire department - 01, police - 02, gas service - 04, information and inquiries - 09, rescue service - 937-99-11.
Cuisine: The Russian feast has long been famous for its hospitality. As a rule, “introductory” snacks are served at the beginning of the feast. These include salted, pickled and pickled fruits, vegetables, mushrooms. No other kitchen can boast of such an assortment of first courses. To make it more satisfying, they were traditionally served with flour products: pies, cheesecakes, pies, kulebyaki.
The most favorite first dish of the Russian people is rightfully considered cabbage soup. Their advantages are ease of preparation, nutritional value and pleasant taste. If cabbage soup is a favorite dish in central Russia, then borscht is popular in the central and southern regions. This is due to the fact that the southern lands bring a rich harvest of beets. The word "soup" appeared under Peter I, before that all liquid dishes were called stews, sometimes yushki - from the word "ear", which denoted first courses with noodles, cereals, vegetables. Soups were served in pots or cast iron. They ate only with wooden spoons.
The originality of Russian cuisine is largely due to the peculiarities of processing food in the Russian oven. Until the middle of the 19th century, the stove was "black", until it had a chimney. The shape of Russian dishes, first ceramic, and then cast iron and iron, is also associated with its design. Slavic pots made on a potter's wheel have a large side surface, since the oven is heated from the sides. The small bottom area is good for regulating the thermal regime, and the narrow neck reduces evaporation and retains volatility. In Russia, other types of hearth were also meant: open fire, tripod, spit.
The first stoves appeared under Peter 1 as borrowed from German cuisine, and with them pots, pans, and baking trays. But the Russian stove has not disappeared. Due to its versatility (bread was baked in it, kvass was brewed, clothes and food were dried, the room was heated with it), it firmly entered the life of the people. And the dishes from the oven have a unique taste.
The list of Russian dishes would be incomplete without porridge. "Our mother porridge." So spoke the people-plowmen about dishes made from grain, cereals, which have always served as an object of worship and a symbol of domestic well-being. Porridge was an indispensable attribute in epics and fairy tales. Even the wedding feast itself was called porridge in the old days.
In baking, the use of yeast dough is most typical for Russian cuisine. Some flour products were certainly present in folk rituals and holidays. Not a single solemn event in the family was complete without pies, pies or gingerbread. Kurniks were baked for the wedding, pancakes and pies for Shrovetide. Christmas carols were baked - small baked goods made from unleavened rye dough with various fillings, liqueurs, spreads or baked goods. Spring was greeted with smart "larks". In the northern regions, New Year's holidays were certainly accompanied by "roe deer", and "grouses" were celebrated on the day of the vernal equinox. The dear guest was greeted with a loaf and salt. The loaf was placed in the center of the table at any feast.
Russian cuisine is also rich in drinks brewed on aromatic herbs and berries. Tea appeared in Russia only in the 17th century, and before that sbiten and various honeys and jelly were very popular.